## Introduction

In mathematics, fixed points play a crucial role in various fields, including calculus, dynamical systems, and optimization. A fixed point is a point in a function’s domain that remains unchanged after applying the function. In this article, we will delve into the concept of fixed points and their classification and provide examples to help you grasp their significance.

## Definition of Fixed Points

Let’s start by formally defining a fixed point. Given a function f with a domain D, a point y in D is a fixed point of f if and only if f(y) = y. In simpler terms, when the input and output of a function are the same, we have a fixed point.

## Classification of Fixed Points

Fixed points can be classified based on the behavior of the function in their vicinity. Let’s explore three common types:

### 1. Attractive Fixed Points

An attractive fixed point is one where nearby points are “attracted” to it. In other words, if we start with an initial value close to the fixed point and repeatedly apply the function, the sequence of values will converge towards the fixed point. Mathematically, this can be expressed as |f'(x)| < 1, where f'(x) represents the derivative of f at x. An example of an attractive fixed point is the function f(x) = x/2, which has a fixed point at x = 0.

### 2. Repulsive Fixed Points

On the other hand, a repulsive fixed point repels nearby points. If we start with an initial value close to the fixed point and repeatedly apply the function, the sequence of values will diverge away from the fixed point. Mathematically, this can be expressed as |f'(x)| > 1. An example of a repulsive fixed point is the function f(x) = 2x, which has a fixed point at x = 0.

### 3. Neutral Fixed Points

Neutral fixed points have a neutral effect on nearby points. If we start with an initial value close to the fixed point and repeatedly apply the function, the sequence of values neither converges nor diverges. Mathematically, this can be expressed as |f'(x)| = 1. An example of a neutral fixed point is the function f(x) = x, which has a fixed point at x = 1.

## Examples of Fixed Points

Let’s explore a few examples of fixed points to solidify our understanding:

### 1. Square Root Function

The square root function, f(x) = √x, has a fixed point at x = 1. When we substitute x = 1 into the function, we get f(1) = √1 = 1. Thus, x = 1 is a fixed point of the square root function.

### 2. Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometric functions, such as the sine function f(x) = sin(x), have multiple fixed points. For example, the function f(x) = sin(x) has fixed points at x = 0, x = π, x = 2π, and so on. These fixed points occur when the input and output of the function are the same.

### 3. Logistic Map

A mathematical model called the logistic map is employed to explain population expansion. It is defined as f(x) = rx(1-x), where r is a constant. The logistic map has various fixed points depending on the value of r. For example, when r = 0, the fixed points are x = 0 and x = 1. As r increases, the number of fixed points and their stability change.

## Conclusion

Fixed points are essential in mathematics and have applications in diverse fields. Understanding the concept of fixed points, their classification, and examples helps us analyze the behavior of functions and systems. Whether attractive, repulsive, or neutral, fixed points provide valuable insights into the dynamics of mathematical functions.

By exploring various examples of fixed points, we can see how they manifest in different functions and scenarios. So, the next time you encounter a function, consider investigating its fixed points to gain a deeper understanding of its behavior.…